Relationship between duodenal microbiota composition, clinical features at diagnosis, and persistent symptoms in adult Coeliac disease. Digestive and Liver Disease.
Duodenal dysbiosis has been suggested to possibly influence the clinical manifestations of coeliac disease (CD), both at onset and when symptoms persist despite a gluten-free diet (GFD).
To evaluate the relationship between duodenal microbiota composition and: i) clinical phenotype of untreated CD (UCD); ii) presence and type of persistent symptoms despite a satisfactory serological and histological response to a strict GFD.
Duodenal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and compared with i) clinical features in 12 adult UCD patients; ii) presence/absence and type of persistent symptoms (diarrhea-predominant vs. non-diarrhea predominant) in 25 adult treated coeliac patients (TCD) on a strict GFD.
UCD with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) had a pro-inflammatory shift in their duodenal microbiota (reduction of Firmicutes, p = 0.03; increase of beta-Proteobacteria, p = 0.02) than those without IDA. TCD with persistent diarrhea showed a reduction of Actinobacteria (p = 0.03) and Rothia spp (p = 0.046) compared to TCD suffering from other type of persistent symptoms.
A distinctive duodenal microbiota profile is associated with IDA in UCD, and diarrhea-predominant persistent symptoms in TCD. Clinical interventions may include reconsidering patients presenting with IDA as a specific disease subtype, and dietary rebalancing if diarrhea persists despite histological response to a GFD.