Pagani L., Marenzi A. (2008).
The labor market participation of sandwich generation Italian women. Journal Of Family And Economic Issues, New York, N.Y.: Human Sciences Press, vol. 29 (3), pp. 427-444.
We empirically analyzed the labor market participation of Italian women, with special emphasis on the role of intergenerational family links. Older relatives, on the one hand, discourage the work participation of women by requiring care; on the other hand they may provide household services favoring labor supply. We studied this dual impact estimating a trivariate probit model where the three choices to be in the labor force, to use informal help from older relatives and to care for them are jointly determined. Our estimates show that care duties towards members of the previous generation hinder the labor market participation of Italian women, and that informal help received from older relatives strongly increases their probability of being engaged in paid work.