Building the Smart Grid: a literature review. Valori e Valutazioni n.13/2014.
In the last years, a wide development of distributed generation took place, with a relevant role of non dispatchable energy sources. The development of distributed generation and, in particular, of intermitting energy power plants (mainly wind farms and photovoltaic power plants) determined new critical issues for design and management of the overall energy system and electric grid. Moving from the new features introduced by distributed generations, but also pushed by the other contingent problems that affected local grids, such as inefficiencies, congestion rents, power outages, and line losses (Cook et al., 2012), it raises the need to make the energy system “smarter” , with a particular focus on electric grids (IEA Workshop report, 2011; European JRC Report on Smart Grid, 2012): this shall happen throughout innovative devices and rules for energy supply and demand, involving power transmission, distribution and consumption. The set of adaptations, both hardware and software, to be improved on the actual electric network and new designed to be shaped for markets and regulatory issues aiming at improving grid efficiency, reliability and security are commonly identified under the big family of Smart Grids.