Marco Bertoni, Giorgio Brunello, Marco Alberto De Benedetto, Maria De Paola (2021)

Does monitoring deter future cheating? The case of external examiners in Italian schools? Available at

We use the repeated random assignment of external examiners to schools in Italy to investigate whether the effect of external monitoring on test score manipulation persists over time. We find that this effect is still present in the tests taken one year after exposure to the examiners. In the second year after exposure, however, this effect disappears, suggesting that persistence is short lived.