Armenak Antinyan, Marco Bertoni , Luca Corazzini (2021)

Cervical cancer screening invitations in low and middle income countries: Evidence from Armenia. Available at

Roughly 90 percent of cervical cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the lack of adequate infrastructures hampers screening, while informational, cultural, and socio-economic barriers limit participation in the few programs that do exist. We conducted a field experiment with the Armenian cervical cancer screening program to determine whether, despite these barriers, the simple, economical invitation strategies adopted in high-income countries could enhance screening take-up in LMICs. We find that letters of invitation increase screening take-up, especially when there are follow-up reminders. Different ways of framing messages appear to have no impact. Finally, women in rural areas are more likely to respond to invitation by letter, helping to narrow the urban-rural screening gap