Dosi, C., Moretto, M. (1993).

Nonpoint-source pollution control, information asymmetry, and the choice of time profile for environmental fees. In Theory, Modeling and Experience in the Management of Nonpoint-Source Pollution (pp. 91-121). Springer, Boston, MA.


Water quality management specialists have for a long time emphasized the practical difficulties of intercepting and neutralizing pollutants running off nonpoint sources (NPS) through conventional add-on devices, and the consequent need to prevent pollutant generation as far as possible. However, the application of an ex ante pollution control approach through effective regulatory schemes may involve a number of problems that arise from the difficulty, and sometimes the technical impossibility, of monitoring NPS emissions at source. This may be due to the mode of conveyance of pollutant flows, the intermittent nature of discharges or the fact that pollutants originate over a widespread area (Vigon, 1985). The relative role played by each of these factors in preventing the monitoring of emissions on a continuous basis may vary according to the specific pollutant at hand.