Bertoni M., Celidoni M., Weber G. (2015).

Does hearing impairment lead to social exclusion?. In Börsch-Supan A., Kneip T., Litwin H., Myck M., Weber G., Ageing in Europe – Supporting Policies for an Inclusive Society, pp. 93-102.



The development of hearing difficulties is positively associated with feeling left out of things often and negatively associated with the frequency at which individuals carry out social activities.
Hearing impairment increases subjective feelings of exclusion throughout the population, while it threatens the objective participation in social activities only for the population aged 70 + and among those who have a large social network.
Feelings of exclusion and reduced social participation act as pathways through which hearing problems may lead to depression, functional limitations and cognitive impairment.