Bertoni M., Cavapozzi D., Celidoni M., Trevisan E. (2015).

Assessing the material deprivation of older Europeans. In Börsch-Supan A., Kneip T., Litwin H., Myck M., Weber G., Ageing in Europe – Supporting Policies for an Inclusive Society, pp. 49-56.



An aggregate measure of material deprivation is defined by summarising in a single index the failures in the affordability of basic needs and the experience of financial difficulties.
Aggregation is carried out under alternative approaches.
Our results consistently show that material deprivation of older Europeans is lowest in Scandinavian countries and highest in Southern Europe, Slovenia and Estonia.